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  • Sail towards a ecological marine future

    In early 2023, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) set ambitious targets to achieve a ecological marine industry and net-zero emissions by 2050, a dramatic acceleration from the previous target of 2100. The industry has been sailing in rough seas since then, with widespread implications for the life cycle management of ships, from concept design to in-service operation and decommissioning. Most industry stakeholders anticipated this development, having observed the sequence of progressively stricter environmental regulations. During the Clean Energy Action Forum 2022, American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) CEO and President Chris Wiernicki outlined so-called credible fuel pathways, which will be the main driver in ship operators' selection of new fuel types to meet zero carbon targets. The technological readiness schedule is at the heart of decision-making, which can be divided into short, medium and long-term periods. According to Wiernicki, such readiness is given if the following four pillars can be established: A solid business case Scalability Provision and use of certifiable data Mitigation of unintended consequences Short-term solutions for a ecological marine industry Short-term solutions are liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol and first and second generation biofuels. According to Clarksons, 4.1% of the world's commercial fleet can use LNG as fuel. This represents 91% of the total share of the fleet capable of alternative fuels. Furthermore, the dominance of LNG is reflected in the current order books, with 33.3% opting for LNG, followed by Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) with 2.3%, methanol (1.2%), ethane (0.3%) and hydrogen (<0.3%). %). Orders combining LNG with the “ammonia ready” option represent up to 10% of these orders. The main incentive for using biofuels is that the existing fuel infrastructure requires few or no adjustments. For smaller, short-sea and coastal vessels, suitable battery solutions are already available, and successful prototypes of fully electric and autonomous vessels can be referenced. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanker Medium-term solutions The medium-term period will see further methanol advancement, with ammonia rising, as compatible engines become more available over the next two years. Long-term projection In the long term, green fuels (fuel produced from biomass sources through various biological, thermal and chemical processes) will be available alongside blue hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen produced from natural gas and supported by capture and carbon storage (CCS). CCS technology readiness is crucial both onboard and ashore. Classification societies are leading the way in evaluating nuclear power as an option for large commercial ships that can accommodate the technology. Simcenter simulation chain – setting sail Each step of the journey to achieving the net zero goal brings distinct engineering challenges to the ship's operation; to name a few: Gas dispersion After treatment Swinging in tanks Tank boiling (process of unwanted temperature increase in tanks that compromises the cryogenic state of the gas). Post-treatment to reduce and remove emissions (purifiers) Cryogenic gas leaks during refueling (refueling process) Trip planning – fuel generation and emissions profiles Simcenter STAR-CCM+'s multiphysics capabilities for hybrid multiphase modeling are being leveraged to provide simulation-based predictions for these problems in both concept design and forensic analysis. At a higher systems level, Simcenter Amesim enables analysis of engine and propulsion configurations with varying levels of detail and fidelity, extending to trip planning, fuel consumption and emissions profiles. Simcenter Amesim The first coastal ships are already sailing completely electric, while the nautical industry has begun to embark on its electrification mission. Simcenter Amesim, Simcenter Motorsolve and Simcenter STAR-CCM+ offer many standardized solutions to consider battery pack sizing, powertrain design or help prevent thermal runaway. Uncontrolled battery – Simcenter CFD simulation Big ships, zero emissions, ecological marine solutions Turning to the larger ships and workhorses of global commerce, we want to focus on how Simcenter suite simulation technology is helping engineers address short- and medium-term solutions for alternative fuels. Among the four pillars of viable fuel pathways, when it comes to ammonia, mitigating unintended consequences must be addressed early in implementation. LNG and ammonia are stored in a cryogenic state, which means that any exposure to environmental conditions, for example through leaks during fueling, will lead to instantaneous vaporization (flash boiling), putting the crew at risk and presenting numerous environmental hazards . The sudden boiling of liquid spray from a leaking pipe into the environment occurs because the ambient pressure is below the saturation pressure of the liquid fuel. Depending on the direction of the spray and the distance from adjacent structures, dispersed vapor cloud precipitation may occur: the impact of liquid droplets remaining from the spray, mostly vaporized, and therefore highly flammable. Case Study: Bunkering Fueling is a critical operation on board ships at sea or in port. Successful fueling requires the safe transfer of fuel to the ship's tanks without overfilling, spills or leaks. Simulation can help in the first stages of the supply process At the beginning of the fueling process is planning the trip to determine the amount of fuel to be supplied. Simcenter Amesim's marine library allows you to connect your engine and powertrain model to the voyage and maneuver simulation environment, accounting for hotel loads, auxiliary engine fuel consumption, wind, waves, and current effects on power characteristics. After determining the amount of fuel, including the reserves to be filled, planning begins as to which tanks will receive the fuel. Here, a model of the tanks, pipes and valves, ballast system and fuel intake through the supply itself is essential for predicting and monitoring performance and ensuring the desired hydrostatics of the ship. These items and action plans for leaks or spills are typically discussed at the pre-bunker conference – which can be digitally supported by rapid time models for quick responses to what-if scenarios. The key to success The Simcenter Flomaster simulation environment allows you to generate result envelopes for different supply scenarios, but can also be used upstream in the design phase to size pumps and lines to achieve the ideal time for filling, emptying and sounding tanks. Ultimately, critical metrics from the simulation can be automatically entered into the petroleum ledger in accordance with MARPOL Annex I. Avoid possible system failures and hazards The interest now is in possible system failures and dangers to the crew and the environment. Models can be configured to produce explicit responses to relevant regulations, for example IMO IGC and IGF codes for LNG. LNG is generally stored at around -162°C and presents cryogenic hazards such as frostbite and human skin burns, and fire and explosion risks during the transition to a gaseous state within the flammable range. In the case of ammonia, skin burns, irritation and inflammation of the crew's respiratory system and eyes may occur. High concentrations of gas in the air, especially in confined spaces, can lead to explosions or fatal results to human life. Learn how CFD simulation can help you analyze unintended consequences To better understand the dangers of flash spray boiling and gas dispersion, we analyzed the problem of refueling at sea, where we simulated the cryogenic dispersion of ammonia from a tube due to a leak during fueling. Using simulations with Simcenter STAR-CCM+, the complex physics of the instantaneous boiling of cryogenic gas dispersion can be studied. Metrics sought include the extent of the plume, the concentration of ammonia at certain points and whether or not rain will occur. While outdoor deck workers are unlikely to be exposed to fatal concentration levels exceeding 2,000 ppm for 30 minutes or more, stinging or burning sensations in the eyes and respiratory system may occur from exposure to as little as 70 ppm above. in the same time frame, according to the National Institute of Health. These levels are not unattainable within closed rooms such as engine compartments, which highlights the importance of employing simulation technology for risk assessment and countermeasure design. In our fictional supply scenario, liquid ammonia was discharged from a leak horizontally in the receiving vessel's supply infrastructure at a pressure of 8 bar, causing rapid dispersion into the environment. Over the course of 10 seconds, approximately 1 ppm can be measured in typical locations for work operations. No rain was detected on the deck, that is, the entire leaked mass passed into a gaseous state. Stay integrated – all hands on deck for a ecological marine future In this post, engineering problems related to ecological marine targets were presented, from conceptual design to onboard operation and assisting in the generation of mandatory documentation. There will certainly be implications of your specific component or problem studies for fundamental aspects of overall ship design. In the likely event that you become overwhelmed by the complexity and interconnectivity of spanning the design space, Simcenter HEEDS will provide nautical reference points for port solutions. Reveal the ultimate solution: Leverage your insights for the best results The role of Simcenter HEEDS is twofold. On the one hand, its workflow manager acts as a spider in the web of Simcenter CAE tools through real-time I/O mapping and administration. Additionally, its multidisciplinary design optimization can be leveraged in the subtool, holistic process, or a combination of both. Setting realistic optimization constraints and leveraging the powerful Simcenter HEEDS post-processing suite to gain key insights will be critical to a safe return to port. Time to anchor There is an ocean of engineering problems when it comes to the design and operation of ships and floating platforms, and Simcenter has many more tools available than those mentioned in the blog in question. Have you ever wondered about the safety and comfort of passengers on your speedboat? Simcenter Madymo is the beacon to follow. Move full steam ahead towards your ecological marine future using performance engineering integrated with Simcenter. If you are navigating towards a sustainable future in the maritime industry, it is time to act. CAEXPERTS is here to help you chart your course toward short, medium and long-term solutions for greener shipping. Join us for a strategic conversation about the challenges and opportunities that await, and discover how we can help you successfully navigate this new landscape. Schedule your meeting with us now and prepare for a journey towards a more sustainable future for our industry.

  • From Theory to Practice: Real Applications of Simcenter STAR-CCM+ in Metallurgy

    The iron & steel industry are highly material and energy intensive industries. Energy constitutes a significant portion of the cost of steel production, from 20% to 40%. Thus, improvements in energy efficiency result in reduced production costs and thereby improved competitiveness. Another challenge with the steel production is that the CO₂ emissions are high. On an average, primary steel plants emit three tons of CO₂ per ton of steel. The global best is 1.4 tons of CO₂ per ton of steel. In order to strengthen the green competitiveness and achieve the goal of low-carbon and clean production, Steel industry adopts four strategies of energy savings: (a) Increase the energy efficiency: waste heat recovery, enhancing the efficiency of energy system/equipment optimizing the operation and energy management. (b) Develop and utilize low-carbon fuels such as bio mass, (c) Maximize the value of fuel gas and (d) Develop the end-of-pipe technology such as CCS. Steel Production Process In the primary ironmaking process, the raw material like iron ore, coke, and lime are melted in a blast furnace resulting in molten iron (hot metal). The key methods are BOS (Basic Oxygen Furnace) and the more modern EAF (Electric Arc Furnace). In the Secondary steelmaking, the molten steel produced from both BOS and EAF routes is treated to adjust the steel composition. The secondary steelmaking processes involve Stirring, Ladle furnace, Ladle injection, Degassing, CAS-OB (composition adjustment by sealed argon bubbling with oxygen blowing). In Continuous casting the molten steel is cast into a cooled mold causing a thin steel shell to solidify. The shell strand is withdrawn using guided rolls and fully cooled and solidified. The strand is cut into desired lengths depending on application; slabs for flat products (plate and strip), blooms for sections (beams), billets for long products (wires) or thin strips. In primary forming, the steel that is cast is then formed into various shapes, often by hot-rolling. Hot rolled products are divided into flat products, long products, seamless tubes, and specialty products. Secondary forming techniques give the steel its final shape and properties. These techniques include cold rolling, Machining (drilling), Joining (welding), Coating (galvanizing), Heat treatment (tempering), Surface treatment (carburizing). Siemens’s Simcenter STAR-CCM+, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based offering is used in Steel industry for (a) enhancing the efficiency of energy system and equipment (b) optimizing the operation and energy management (c) Analyzing and comparing various technologies for process optimizations. Simcenter STAR-CCM+ provides detailed analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer and other physio-chemical phenomenon in the equipment at the actual scale, and operating conditions which otherwise is not possible using experimental techniques. This technology gives detailed threedimensional understanding of the process parameters like flow pattern, temperature, mixing profile, chemical composition, heat transfer, combustion, chemical reactions, casting, etc. Simcenter STAR-CCM+ also offers a very robust Discrete Element Method (DEM) capability to model solid particulate flows. Basic Oxygen Furnace Basic Oxygen Furnace The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is a part of the steel making process where pure oxygen is used to convert molten pig iron into steel by oxidizing carbon. In top-blown furnaces, a supersonic oxygen jet is blown through a vertically oriented lance onto the molten metal bath, creating a cavity at the bath surface. Important parameters are the resulting shape and size of this cavity because they contribute to the interfacial contact area between the oxygen and the metal. The fast decarbonization reactions at the molten metal / gas interface lead to the formation of carbon monoxide (CO), which may react with oxygen in the top space of the furnace to produce carbon dioxide. This latter process is generally referred to as the post-combustion reaction and is highly exothermic (ΔHR = -283 kJ/mol). In order to optimize the energy efficiency of the process and to increase the amount of scrap additions that may be remelted in the bath, there is a strong interest in promoting the post-combustion of carbon monoxide and the transfer of the energy released by this reaction to the liquid metal. Alternatively, bottom-blowing converters are used where the oxygen is injected at the bottom of the furnace. This is leads to additional agitation and mixing, similar to the results shown in the ladle section. Converter geometry, lance configuration, number dimension and positioning of the bottom inlets as well as the flow rates affect the flow field and therefore the oxidation process and this offers opportunities to improve the process and its efficiency. To simulate a top-lance BOF with a focus on the jet penetration and its interaction with the molten metal Simcenter STAR-CCM+ offers the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method as well as the EulerianmMultiphase model with a model extension to capture the free surface correctly, the so-called LargemScale Interface (LSI). Both methods support reactions in each phase and recently a surface reactionmmodel for VOF was introduced to consider reactions only at the free surface, where oxygen gets in contact with the carbon in the liquid melt. Case Set-up and description In the case presented here a pure oxygen jet from above interacts with the melt. The transient VOF simulation is done on a 2D axisymmetric domain with 125.000 hexahedron cells, assuming ideal gas behaviour for the gas phase. Both phases are modelled as multi-component. The gas phase consists of O₂, CO, CO₂ and N₂ while the liquid phase contains Fe and C. To model the decarbonisation, two surface reactions at the interface are applied, forming CO in the gas phase: C(l) + O₂(g) → 2CO(g) C(l) + CO₂ → 2CO(g) 2CO(g) + O₂(g) → 2CO₂(g) Figura 1: Left: Oxygen jet entering the BOF and penetrating the liquid melt. The black line indicates the free surface. Right: Red shows the liquid melt, blue the gas phase, yellowish color indicates liquid droplets. Results Simulation results in Fig. 1 show the deep penetration of the oxygen jet into the melt. Smaller and larger melt droplets are lifted up and splash against the wall. The depth and the form of the cavity is permanently changing since this case is inherently transient, resulting on the one hand in a larger surface area and on the other in an additional mixing due to these fluctuations. Fig. 2 shows the oxygen distribution in the gas phase. At the lance a pure oxygen jet enters the furnace. A part of the oxygen is consumed by the decarbonization at the free surface and another part is converted in the gas phase to carbon dioxide. A closer look to the free surface (Fig. 3 and 4) shows that a lower Carbon content is only found in the vicinity of the free surface. It also indicates that the wiggles are increasing the free surface and therefor the reaction rates significantly, since the lowest C content is found there. On the gas side, a higher CO mole fraction is found in the wiggles but also on the right-hand side close to the free surface. This is an area where the gas velocities are not that high (see Fig. 3) and CO is not transported efficiently into the bulk. Ladle Stirring In a ladle furnace, argon is injected through a refractory-lined lance or through a permeable refractory block in the bottom in order to maintain a uniform temperature and composition. A benchmark exercise for such a furnace is described below. The geometry used and further details are as specified by the German Steel Society’s (VDEh) 7th meeting in 2010. Problem Description The ladle holds 185t of steel at 1600oC. Argon is introduced from the bottom giving rise to heterogenous gas plumes causing the steel to be stirred. The goal of the simulation was to determine the time required to achieve complete mixing. Figure 5: Details for ladle stirring benchmark. Red region: slag and yellow region: the molten metal A volume-of-fluid (VOF) modelling method was used in STAR-CCM+ to account for the interface between gas and liquid. A discrete particle tracking algorithm to track the injected bubbles (with amRosin Rammler size distribution) and ideal gas law dependent density based on the height of the molten metal was used for the injected gas. Two-way-coupling with consideration of drag, lift and turbulent dispersion force is employed between the gas and the liquid phase. A numerical tracer is introduced to track the extent of mixing and the required mixing time. Results of ladle benchmark The results from this study are shown below in Figs. 6(a) to 6(c). Fig. 6a is showing a snapshot of the bubble distribution and rise in the domain. Figure 6b shows the velocity contours of the melt cause by the injection of the Argon jet, clearly showing a developing jet flow with velocity decreasing with height. The velocity magnitude was within 15% of the analytical results. Fig. 6c shows a pictograph from a water-based experiment on a scaled model of the ladle. It indicates that the flow filed matches the simulation results qualitatively (since no velocity measurements were performed in the water experiment). Fig. 7 shows that the mixing time results from simulation (⁓120s) compares well with those from experimental measurements (⁓120-140 seconds) indicating that CFD simulation allows detailed insights in to the flow behaviour. Further geometries can be investigated using simulation combined with an automated direct optimization approach to find an engineering solution to mixing. Figure 6: (a) Plume of rising bubbles (b) Argon jet velocity field (c) Photo of a scaled water experiment Figure 7: Comparison of time required for complete mixing with experimental values. Continuous Casting After a steel alloy has been manufactured, molten steel needs to be processed for further use. We can discern two kinds of wrought material following the steel production: either ingots that can be used down the line in specific shape casting processes or continuously casted steel rods of various cross section geometries. Production Challenges To ensure good overall product quality certain process aspects are key: (a) Transport and location of non-metallic inclusions and slag inside the ingot or strand (b) Temperature management of the alloy to ensure desirable metallurgical properties (c) Defects such as macro and micro shrinkage defects These aspects are closely linked to one another as well as the overall manufacturing efficiency. Thus, the continuous or ingot casting process is a conglomerate of different physical phenomena and engineering challenges involving Heat transfer (radiation, conduction and convection), Phase change (solidification in the metal & boiling due to spray cooling), Material transport, Joule Heating, Magneto Hydro Dynamics (stirring in the strand), Metallurgy including shrinkage defects, Chemical reactions (Exothermic sleeves and powders). Figure 8: Flow pattern during steel ingot solidification. Creation of alpha pore and shrinkage defects Problem & Results Using a pseudo transient approach, Simcenter STAR-CCM+ was used to predict the shell thickness along the strand as well as the position of the solidification tip. The validation work was based on the work of Ushyima where the shell thickness is analytically determined. The caster is assumed to be prefilled with superheated steel, the walls are set to be convective. Inlet speed is also given and at the outlet the casting speed is applied. Figure 9: Shell thickness validation for single strand caster. Left plot shows the comparison of results. Right plot shows the outline of the geometry after Ushijima The volume of fluid multi-phase approach is used to investigate the slag-melt- air interaction. Phase change modelling is enabled inside the VOF model. By expanding the computational domain beyond the fluid domain alone to include i.e. the mold or rollers the effect of assumptions in boundary conditions can be mitigated. Simcenter STAR-CCM+ has a set of criteria functions for defect analysis inside the cast part. Material properties are also key to accurately predict flow and solidification behavior inside the cast. The software’s open structure allows one to import own temperature depended material data or you use the materials on offer inside the dedicated metal material database. Results (Fig. 9) indicate that STAR-CCM+ can predict the shell thickness accurately and can be used to evaluate the casting process effectively.z. Conclusions Simcenter STAR-CCM+ has been used for the detailed analysis of basic oxygen furnaces, ladle mixing and continuous casting. Details including fluid dynamics, decarbonization reactions on the surface as well as oxidation reactions in the gas phase have been accurately modelled. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method as well as the Eulerian Multiphase model with a LSI extension can be used to capture the free surface correctly. Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ opens the door to further optimization and process improvement. Do you want to take the efficiency and sustainability of your steel industry to a new level? At CAEXPERTS, we can help you design energy-saving strategies and advanced technologies to reduce CO₂ emissions. Schedule a meeting with us and discover how we can help your company optimize processes, reduce costs and achieve your production goals in a more sustainable way. Don't delay, get in touch now and take the first step towards a greener and more competitive future!

  • What's new in Simcenter Femap 2401

    For nearly 40 years, Simcenter Femap has been an essential tool for analysts to model complex engineering structures. The latest version, version 2401, includes several new features and improved functionality based on user feedback. Many of our customers use composite materials to reduce weight in their designs, and with new features in Simcenter Femap 2401, it is now easier to model composite structures. This includes having direct access to layups calculated through the Siemens Fibersim product . Layup Builder – Overview Simcenter Femap 2401 introduced a new, more efficient way to create composite finite element structures with different layouts. This is done through a new dockable panel called Layup Builder. In previous versions, creating composites required creating a Laminate property and a corresponding Layup to define stacking, followed by assigning that property to an area or region of the mesh. This process had to be repeated for all other areas. See how the new Layup Builder can provide a different approach and potentially a more efficient way to create composite finite element models. Layup Builder – Using external data The new Layup Builder dockable panel in Simcenter Femap 2401 offers an alternative to manually creating layups by providing the ability to define a general “Ply Stackup”. Once defined, any subset of lines in the Layup Stack can be applied to any part of the model to automatically generate the required layups. One method for defining a “Layup Stack” is to use data provided by another application. As seen in another video, Layup Stacks can be defined manually or loaded from an existing layup, but this video focuses on the “Attach composite HDF5 file” method. Incompressible fluid splashes There are two essential aspects of unrest: (a) predicting its onset and (b) mitigating the effects of unrest once it begins. Avoiding splash-inducing resonance will also reduce liquid pressure on the walls of the container. However, a side effect may be that the vessel is tuned to a resonance that could cause catastrophic failure. Therefore, to avoid splashing and reduce the risk of container failure, it is best to consider the coupled effects of the liquid and container to determine the coupled hydroelastic modes. This technique ensures that the modes that initiate oscillation and failure do not occur. Simcenter Femap 2401 includes extended support for incompressible fluid dynamic analysis. While previous versions of Simcenter Femap included support for modeling incompressible fluid implicitly as a virtual fluid mass, Simcenter Femap 2401 allows users to model incompressible fluid explicitly as a fluid mass defined with solid elements. The defined fluid mass will allow users to model complicated fluid volume shapes and extended fluid volume types, such as volumes with splash-free surfaces. We can use these features to calculate the coupled hydroelastic modes of the structure. Analysis Set Manager Simcenter Femap 2401 makes it easy for ABAQUS users to configure their analyzes using familiar terminology and methodologies. Additionally, improvements have been made to the Simcenter Nastran Multi-Step Nonlinear Structural Solution (Sol 401) due to the large number of strategy parameters it uses. Improvements in quality of life To make the functionality more discoverable, Simcenter Femap implemented a Command Finder in version 2301, enhanced it for version 2306, and improved it again for version 2401. Would you like to maximize your efficiency in modeling composite structures with Simcenter Femap 2401? Schedule a meeting with us at CAEXPERTS and discover how new features like Layup Builder and extended support for incompressible fluid dynamic analysis can optimize your designs. Don't miss the chance to explore these innovations and boost your productivity. Get in touch now!

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  • Computational Fluid Dynamics | CAEXPERTS

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational fluid dynamics, also known as CFD ( Computational Fluid Dynamics ), is a numerical simulation technique that allows studying the behavior of fluids under different conditions. This discipline can be used from the design of a space rocket to the design of a reactor in a chemical industry. That is, computational fluid dynamics is widely used in a variety of applications, such as the aeronautical industry, chemical processes, food processing, foundry, among others. One of the main advantages of CFD is the possibility of observing, in three dimensions (3D), what happens inside industrial equipment, such as piping, heat exchangers, compressors, among others. This allows the identification of possible problems and the proposal of solutions to improve the performance of this equipment. In addition, CFD can also be used to identify critical points in systems and implement measures to mitigate these problems, thus ensuring the safety and efficiency of systems. Contact an Expert Transport Systems Heat transfer HVAC Fluid Mixtures Separation processes Combustion Particulate Systems Flow in Structures Naval systems They assist in the design and dimensioning of fluid transport systems, such as pipes, ducts, distributors, blowers, compressors and pumps. It is possible to conduct studies with fluids of different physicochemical properties, in different operational conditions, such as pressure, flow and temperature. Through fluid dynamic simulation in these systems, it is possible to identify problems such as head loss, water hammer, obstruction points and fluid segregation, as well as propose solutions to mitigate these problems and reduce operating costs. In addition, this tool can be used to obtain performance data for equipment that is not found in the literature, such as operating curves for valves and pumps. ​ ​ ​ Using this computer simulation technique, it is possible to design, dimension, optimize and analyze heat transfer in industrial systems, such as heat exchangers, condensers, boilers, cooling towers, dryers and evaporators. It allows identifying problems such as hot spots, overheating zones, incrustation in heat exchangers, among others, and proposing solutions to improve energy efficiency. In addition, it is excellent for obtaining equipment performance data, such as the overall heat transfer coefficient, making it possible to integrate the fluid dynamic simulation with process simulators that need this input information. ​ ​ ​ They allow engineers and designers to analyze the behavior of air and coolant in refrigeration systems, such as air conditioning, freezers, refrigerators, cold rooms, among others. In this way, it is possible to identify problems such as undersizing, overheating and propose solutions to improve energy efficiency and the useful life of the system. Fluid dynamic analysis can also be used to study air flow in ventilation systems, such as building HVAC systems, factory ventilation systems, among others. This analysis makes it possible to identify problems such as areas of low circulation and air renewal and propose solutions to improve thermal comfort and air quality. ​ ​ ​ ​ It is the best tool to analyze in detail how the mixing of fluids occurs, including heterogeneous and non-isothermal mixtures, allowing the analysis of the concentration distribution of the components and the temperature of the fluids, which is essential to guarantee safety and efficiency. of the processes. This type of analysis is very important in reaction systems, in thermal exchange systems, in mass transfer systems (such as absorption and distillation columns) among others, as it allows identifying problems such as component segregation, bubble formation, preferential paths and stagnation zones, phenomena that directly impact the efficiency of systems. Computational fluid dynamics is also a valuable tool to optimize the performance of these systems through parametric studies, Excellent for optimizing the design of separation systems, such as filters, decanters, centrifuges, cyclones, distillation columns, among others. This makes it possible to identify problems such as poor particle distribution, sediment accumulation, flow resistance, low contact area between fluids, preferential paths, among others, and propose solutions to improve efficiency and avoid equipment oversizing. In addition, these tools can also be used to simulate and optimize complex mixture separation processes, such as the separation of volatile organic compounds, mixtures of gases and liquids, among others. In the design and optimization of combustion systems, such as burners, furnaces, engines, among others, it is used to analyze in detail the behavior of the fuel fluid and air, as well as the thermal and thermochemical performance of the system. This makes it possible to identify problems such as excessive emission of pollutants, high temperature, poor heat distribution, among others, and propose solutions to improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental impact. In addition, it is possible to test several virtual prototypes and find, through parametric analysis, the best solution for the combustion process. Several mathematical models are used to study the behavior of particulate systems, such as dust, grains, droplets, among others. This tool allows evaluating the transport of mass and energy in particulate systems, such as the movement of particles in a fluidized bed, the dispersion of particles in a fluid, the sedimentation of particles in equipment, among others. In addition, computational fluid dynamics studies can be coupled with another simulation technique, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM), making the studies even more detailed. This type of system is found in several industries, such as oil refining, cement production, food processing, metallurgy, among others. ​ ​ Structures such as buildings, bridges, telecommunications towers and oil platforms are subject to fluid flow. Through computer simulation of these structures, it is possible to assess how they behave under different conditions, such as strong winds, heavy rains and waves. In this way, it is possible to propose solutions to minimize the effects of these phenomena and guarantee the safety and stability of structures, preventing accidents and avoiding oversizing. In addition, this analysis can be used to evaluate the aerodynamic behavior of structures, identifying problems such as oscillations, vibrations and noise, and proposing solutions to mitigate these problems. ​ ​ Marine systems are complex and require thorough analysis to ensure their safety, efficiency and durability. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a valuable tool in this regard, as it allows simulating and analyzing the behavior of fluids in naval systems, such as ships, submarines and floating platforms. This makes it possible to evaluate the performance of propulsion, exhaust and maneuvering systems, identifying problems and proposing solutions to improve the safety, efficiency and durability of these systems. In addition, CFD tools can also be used to evaluate the flow behavior in different meteorological conditions, such as strong winds and waves, providing solutions to minimize the effects of these phenomena. STAR-CCM+ FloEFD Simcenter STAR-CCM+ is highly respected 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software around the world, trusted by many established engineering companies in diverse industries. This tool is renowned for its ability to capture all of the physics that influence a product's performance over its lifetime of operation. It has advanced mathematical methods and sophisticated mathematical models, including multiphase and interface models, making it a powerful tool to explore and optimize the design of products involving highly complex phenomena. ​ ​ From research and development institutes to equipment and process design companies, engineers use Simcenter STAR-CCM+ as their primary tool, as it is a valuable tool for improving product design and development processes, enabling engineers to perform accurate simulations. and reliable tools that cover a wide range of engineering disciplines. In addition, design exploration and optimization tools, along with automated mesh generation, help make the design process more efficient and make better decisions. The Simcenter STAR-CCM+ integrated environment also provides a complete solution, allowing engineers to work more efficiently and faster. In addition, it allows integration with other engineering tools, such as FEA and DEM, FloEFD is 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that provides a quick and easy way to perform flow and heat transfer simulations in equipment. It integrates directly with leading design software such as SolidWorks, AutoCAD and Creo, allowing engineers to perform CFD simulations directly within the CAD environment. One of the main advantages of this tool is that it is not necessary to be an expert in computational fluid dynamics to use it, as it is designed to be easy to use and offers an intuitive interface. It is the ideal tool for those seeking solution speed, as it uses efficient solution methods in terms of processing time. Its integration with design tools and Cartesian-type meshing allows the designer to test different scenarios and design alternatives quickly and accurately, making it a valuable tool for designers who want to integrate CFD simulation with their CAD designs. ⇐ Back to Disciplines

  • Additive Manufacturing Simulation | CAEXPERTS

    Simcenter 3D A dditive Manufacturing Simulation Additive manufacturing (AM) is changing the way products are made. Revolutionary new machines and processes are rapidly pushing AM from the prototype environment to the shop floor. Simcenter 3D software 's additive manufacturing capabilities are used to predict skews and defects before parts are printed, thereby reducing the number of test prints and improving the quality of the final print. High quality simulation environment Improved inherent stress approach Print right the first time Fully integrated into the NX end-to-end workflow Providing a platform for multidisciplinary simulation Simcenter 3D's high-quality simulation capabilities are critical to the industrialization of AM. During the simulation of the MA process, the parts are accurately meshed with tetrahedral meshes and later sliced, which gives better results when compared to voxel meshes . A new approach was developed and brought to market with Simcenter 3D. The layer-by-layer construction process during powder bed fusion printing leads to layer shrinkage during layer cooling. The rigidity of the printed structure has a strong influence on the distortion of the part. The calculated distortions can be used to compensate the part before the printing process. The initial geometry can be automatically transformed into pre-compensated shape and replaced in the built-in tray for later analysis, or it can be sent directly to the printer to print correctly the first time. Simcenter 3D for MA is seamlessly integrated into the end-to-end Siemens* Digital Enterprise Software MA workflow . The process is simplified to be used by non-computer-aided engineering (CAE) users as well. The Simcenter 3D AM solution is part of a larger multidisciplinary simulation environment and is integrated with Simcenter 3D Engineering Desktop at the core for centralized pre/post processing for all Simcenter 3D solutions. This integrated environment helps you achieve faster CAE processes and streamline multidisciplinary simulations that integrate additive manufacturing with any of Simcenter's 3D solutions, such as thermomechanical, vibroacoustic, or more complex analyses. Sectors Industry applications Aerospace and Defense Industrial machinery Auto Industry Today, AM is still primarily a research and development (R&D) activity, as this process remains expensive and slow, precluding its use in large projects, such as in the automotive industry. However, some industrial applications are already linked to the printing of complex parts, which are difficult to produce using traditional methods. The main objective of this is to create light parts with good mechanical properties. Repairing parts previously produced by traditional processes can also be a valuable application of AM due to the unique nature of each component. The space industry already produces structural parts for launchers. The objective is to produce light parts with good mechanical properties. The aeronautical industry is also developing this technology, but it is in a more exploratory phase with the aim of producing components with complex geometry. Power generation appears to be an industry that is exploiting AM to produce turbine blades and other combustion chamber components. AM can also be applied to the repair of existing turbines. Lightweight structures Generative design can be used to find new proposals that can be manufactured with additive manufacturing technology. Modules ​ Simcenter 3D Additive Manufacturing simulates the MA process for Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The one-piece configuration on the constructed tray, including support structures, is used as a base. The user selects the parts to simulate and sets the printing process parameters (material, number of parts, layer slicing, laser parameters, etc.) and runs the simulation. The result is temperature distribution and part distortion. Simcenter 3D Additive Manufacturing is used to calculate distortion of parts during the MA process. Part distortions can be transferred to the starting geometry to pre-deform it using powerful contour representation model based geometry modification (BREP) techniques. A new offset part file is generated and can be used to replace the original part in the build tray. The compensated geometry is then used for validation and can be sent directly to the printer. ​ ​ Module benefits: Construction process simulation for powder bed fusion metal impressions Fully integrated with the NX™ software additive manufacturing framework Unique model setup and resolution methodology ​ Main features: Solving the coupled thermomechanical solution Material and process parameters for MA Consideration of fixed plane module support structures Analyze the thermal distribution Analyze distortion before and after support removal Detect Coating Collision Predict the probability of overheating Efficiently calculate stiffness curves Compute Pre-Distorted Geometry for Compensation Benefícios do módulo: BREP Geometry Pre-Strain Generating offset geometry NX part files ​ Característi cas principais: Supports standard loads and boundary conditions, as well as specific acoustic boundary conditions such as duct modes and acoustic diffuse field loads (random) Pressure loads on structural surfaces from other acoustic or CFD analysis Porous and temperature-dependent fluid materials, average convective flow effects, frequency-dependent surface impedance, and transfer admittance between pairs of surfaces Calculate sound pressure, intensity, and power for virtual microphones located inside or outside the mesh fluid volume ___________________________________________________________________________ Simcenter 3D Additive Manufacturing ___________________________________________________________________________ Omnimesh for Simcenter 3D ⇐ Back to Simcenter

  • Cabling and Electrical Harness | CAEXPERTS

    Cabling and Electrical Harness A harness has a wide variety of cables and each of them is responsible for managing and distributing a part of the automobile's energy. As an example, a popular car has 400 cables, while a premium one has 800. The difference comes from the amount of equipment installed in the car. The more modern the car, the more drivers will be needed for all systems to work perfectly. In general, a car has 700 meters of cable. The harness is also separated by colors that are determined according to the assemblers, which serve to identify the function of that harness. Contact an Expert Automation of repetitive tasks Find design flaws early in the early stages Manage complexity With several project automation tools, it is possible to automatically estimate the amount of wires, cables and insulators, create purchase order tables, create visual aids for the operator, among others. Simulations during design allow errors in dimensioning components and connections to be found in their initial stages. Thus, they reduce the need to build prototypes, costs and development time. Due to the increasing number of electrical sensors and actuators in vehicles, the complexity, weight and cost of cabling projects is increasing. Also, by consumer demand, the need for mass customization of the automotive production line was presented, several cabling options are designed for each additional set. Eventually, the costs of customizing the cabling project can be higher than making a few complete harnesses that meet several sets of options. Solid Edge Electrical Complete simulation software . Simcenter's 3D acoustic modules provide the capabilities needed to evaluate radiated noise, including capturing the effect of encapsulations with sound treatments. ⇐ Back to Disciplines

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